Science or Coaches' Eye? - Both! Beneficial Collaboration of Multidimensional Measurements and Coach Assessments for Efficient Talent Selection in Elite Youth Football.
Due to the tremendous popularity of youth football, practitioners in this domain face the ongoing question of the most effective solutions in early talent selection. Although the scientific community has suggested multidimensional models for some time, coach assessments and motor performance tests remain common. Earlier research has determined the strengths and weaknesses within these different approaches. The current investigation directly compared the effectiveness of each approach in talent selection (coach assessment vs. motor performance tests vs. multidimensional data). A sample of 117 youth football players, their parents, and coaches participated in multidimensional measurements in the U14 age category (coach assessments, motor performance tests, psychological characteristics, familial support, training history, and biological maturation). The area under the curve (AUC [95% CI]) from receiver operating characteristic indicated the prognostic validity of each approach in predicting U19 player status five years after the assessments (professional vs. non-professional). Motor performance tests (0.71 [0.58; 0.84]) showed a lower AUC than the multidimensional data (0.85 [0.76; 0.94], p = 0.02), whilst coach assessments did not differ from the two others (.82 [.74; .90]). Further, combined talent selection approaches, especially the use of coach assessments and multidimensional data together, were significantly better at predicting U19 player status (0.93 [0.87; 0.98], p = 0.02 vs. multidimensional data only). Although certain limitations may impede further insights (summation of data, skipped use of non-linear statistics), scientific claims for using multidimensionality within talent selection were confirmed to be fruitful. In particular, the combination of the subjective coaches' eye with scientific data may buffer the mutual weaknesses of these different approaches. Future research should focus on optimizing the output of promising multidimensional models. Knowledge of detailed values relating to specific dimensions within these models and the implementation of enhanced non-linear statistics may enable further improvements in the field of talent selection.
Coach decision-making and the relative age effect on talent selection in football
ABSTRACT Research Question(s): Talent selection is a stepping stone to sporting success at national and international levels. The research questions that guided this study were: (a) What is the decision-making (DM) process that coaches (as key selectors) use during talent selection? and (b) In what ways does awareness of the relative age effect (RAE) influence their DM? Research Methods: This study employed an action research approach in order to raise coach awareness of RAE on talent selection to examine the decisions surrounding selection of players. From a sample of 263 male football (soccer) players (age range 12–15) and 4 coaches, qualitative and quantitative data were collected on coach decisions for selection of players and frequencies of selected players in birth-months. Secondary data were also gathered from previous year's selections. Results and Findings: Logistic regression showed that coaches’ awareness of RAE did not eliminate nor reduce it. In-depth interviews revealed that coaches’ DM was influenced by preconceptions and various pressures to select certain players. Pressures resonated within the volatile nature of their profession and career goals, the existence of competing decision-makers such as peers and parents, and the tension to select players for immediate success. Implications: The results lead to the consideration of various practical recommendations on coach organisation, coach education and alternative interventions in DM such as an alternative staged approach to talent selection that lends itself open for future research.
Talent selection criteria for olympic distance triathlon
Talent Selection allows to optimize the resources available for sporting talent in order to design the best strategy to achieve top level sporting results. Because of the unknown aspects of the performance model in Olympic triathlon the TS variables and their relationship with a future performance are far-off from being identified in order to make a talent prospective study possible. Currently most triathlon federations evaluate only the juvenile performance expressed in time trials test on swimming and running. The aim of the present study was to find the most appropriate variables for the Talent Selection in Olympic Triathlon, verifying those widely used by means of a retrospective research about particular juvenile features recognized in top world triathlon athletes. The variables are considered as input variables of a Talent selection model based on Fuzzy Logic that overcome the limits of traditional models based on cut-off selection. The present findings indicate that the exclusive evaluation of juvenile running and swimming performance in order to select triathlon talent is not appropriate. Diagnosis criteria should include several other variables that should also take into account mental ability, speed of abilities development, utilization of endogenous and exogenous resources, load and stress tolerance as several leading countries have done recently.
Education, Computer Science
[The assessment of biological maturation for talent selection - which method can be used?].
The biological maturity status plays an important role in sports, since it influences the performance level and the talent selection in various types of sport. More mature athletes are favorably selected for regional and national squads. Therefore, the biological maturity status should be considered during the talent selection process. In this context, the relative age effect (RAE), which exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected sports groups shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of athletes born in the first months after the specific cut-off-date for the competition categories, represents another problem in the talent development. From an ethical point of view, discrimination of young talented kids does exist: the relatively younger athletes have little to no chance of reaching the elite level, despite their talents and efforts. The causal mechanisms behind the RAE are still unclear and have to be assessed. In this context, the biological maturation seems to be a possible influential factor for the existence of a RAE in sport, which has to be examined. Several methods for estimating the biological maturity status exist; however, they are often expensive and not practicable. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to assess the concordance of a simple, yet accurate method of estimating biological maturation (prediction equation of age at peak height velocity, APHV) of Mirwald and co-workers, and the gold standard method of estimating skeletal age (SA, the x-ray of the left wrist).
In total, 75 Austrian students (40♂, 35♀) aged 10 - 13 years, were examined. Thirty of the participants (17♂, 13♀) were students of a well-known Austrian ski boarding school, and 45 (23♂, 22♀) of a non-sportive secondary modern school of the same region. The participants included in the study had not experienced a rupture of the carpal bones of the left wrist. Parents and participants were informed of the study aims, requirements and risks before providing written informed consent. The study was performed according to the Declaration of Helsinki. The study was approved by the Board for Ethical Questions in Science (Nr.: 2/2014) and the Institutional Ethics Review Boards for Human Research. For the prediction equations, the body height, the body mass and the sitting height were examined 8. The actual CA at time of measurement, and the leg length as the difference between body height and sitting height were calculated. These parameters were used to predict MO as time before or after PHV for boys and girls using the prediction equations of Mirwald et al. 19. According to Malina and Koziel 8, the participants were classified as late, on time (average) or early maturing on the basis of their APHV relative to the sample mean and standard deviation separated by sex. Participants within plus/minus the standard deviation of the mean were considered on time; participants with APHV > mean + standard deviation were classified late, while those with APHV < mean - standard deviation were classified early. An expert in pediatric endocrinology evaluated the x-rays of the left-hand wrist with the Greulich-Pyle-Method for assessing SA, the most widely used method of determining SA 24. The difference between SA and CA were calculated (= difference SA-CA). Consistent with other studies, the participants were divided into three groups according to their maturity status: on time or average maturity status was a SA within ±1 year of CA, late maturating was a SA behind CA of more than 1 year, and early maturating was a SA in advance of CA of more than 1 year 5 19 25. The most accurate method used to compare two methods of measurement is the Bland-Altman plot and the 95 % limits of agreement 26 27 28. Bland-Altman plots of the difference between difference in APHV (from the literature mean) and difference SA-CA (y-axis) and the mean of difference in APHV and difference SA-CA (x-axis) were performed. Approximately 95 % of the points in the plot should lie within the limits; then the concordance between the two methods of measurement is given 28. Additionally, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC(3,1); two-way-mixed, total agreement) were calculated between difference in APHV and difference SA-CA. Chi²-tests were used to assess the difference in the percentage of pupils classified as on time, early or late maturing between the classifications based on the SA and on APHV, respectively. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05 and for highly significant at p < 0.01. All of the calculations were performed using PASW Statistics V.21.0.
Chi²-tests did not show any significant differences (p = 0.404) in the percentage of participants classified as on time, early or late maturing between the two classifications based on SA and on APHV, respectively, neither for the total sample, nor for the two groups ski racers and non-athletes. The Bland-Altman analysis showed that more than 95 % of the points in the plot lie within the limits; consequently, there is concordance between the two methods with regard to estimating biological maturation. The ICC(3,1) statistics showed a highly significant correlation: p = 0.002, ICC (95 % CI) = 0.48 (0.13 - 0.69).
The prediction equations to determine APHV seem to be a valid method of assessing the biological maturity status of youths aged 10 - 13 years. The percentage of pupils classified as on time, early or late maturing did not differ significantly between the classifications based on the two methods. Also the Bland-Altman analysis proved the concordance between the two methods. The RAE could be influenced and strengthened by the biological age in sports in which advantages in maturity parameters are important. Athletes born early in the selection year, who are also at the same time advanced in maturity, might be advantaged in the selection process. However, since the prediction equations seem to be valid, this method can be used in the future in the talent selection process in order to not disadvantage late-maturing athletes, which in turn could result in the reduction of the occurrence of the RAE in various types of sports in the future. In talent selection processes the growth spurt and the implemented changes in proportions between core and the extremities are often not considered; although it was shown that during this period, athletes showed poor performances in physical fitness. Since physical fitness is an important criterion in talent selection processes, athletes who go through their individual peak growth spurt at the time of selection have disadvantages due to the diverse proportions. As a consequence, it seems important to know the athlete's APHV in order to consider the variations in physical performance caused by developmental changes. The prediction equations to determine APHV include the leg length and sitting height in order to consider the diverse proportions between core and extremities; hence, this method seems to be accurate and should be implemented in the talent selection process.
Talent development gamification in talent selection assessment centres
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the use of sophisticated talent selection processes such as gamification and training and development interventions designed to ensure that candidates can successfully navigate the talent assessment process. Gamification is the application of game elements to non-game activities through the adoption of gaming tools, and little is known about how candidates (“talent”) struggle to learn about the structural mechanics of gamification as they engage with the hidden rules of talent selection, such as goals, rules, “levelling up”, feedback and engagement in competitive – collaborative activities. The term “talent development gamification” is coined and used as an analytical tool to consider how young talent are supported by development interventions in their inter-subjectivity as they learn how to survive and win in talent selection games.
Studying hidden dynamics in development processes inherent in gamified talent selection is challenging, so a cult work of fiction, “Ender’s Game”, is examined to address the questions: “How do candidates in talent selection programmes learn to make sense of the structural mechanics of gamification”, “How does this make the hidden rules of talent selection explicit to them?” and “What does this mean for talent development?”
Talent development in selection gamification processes is illustrated through nuanced theoretical accounts of how a multiplicity of shifting and competing developmental learning opportunities are played out as a form of “double-consciousness” by potential organizational talent for them to “win the selection game”.
Using novels as an aid to understanding management and the organization of work is ontologically and epistemologically problematic. But analysing novels which are “good reads” also has educational value and can produce new knowledge from its analysis. In exploring how “Characters are made to live dangerously, to face predicaments that, as readers, we experience as vicarious pleasure. We imagine, for example, how a particular character may react or, more importantly, what we would do in similar circumstances” (Knights and Willmott, 1999, p. 5). This future-oriented fictional narrative is both illustrative and provides an analogy to illuminate current organisational development challenges.
The term “talent development gamification in selection processes” is coined to allow analysis and provide lessons for talent development practice in a little studied area. Our case study analysis identifies a number of areas for consideration by talent management/talent development specialists involved in developing talent assessment centres incorporating gamification. These include the importance of understanding and taking account of rites of passage through the assessment centre, in particular the role of liminal space, what talent development interventions might be of benefit and the necessity of appreciating and managing talent in developing the skill of double consciousness in game simulations.
Talent selection ,-identification and-development exemplified in the Australian TALENT SEARCH Programme
1. Presentation of the Problem The criteria according to CARL (1988) for the general description of elite sport-oriented young talent training are listed. They are true for the old states (of Germany = former (western) Federal Republic, the editor) and have, in the meantime, become true for the new states (of Germany = former (eastern) German Democratic Republic, the editor): ◆ There is no uniform, definite or even dirigiste system of talent identification, -selection and -development, but an individually accentuated variety of action in elite sportoriented young talent training. ◆ Free sport is responsible for acting in this field as well as autonomous clubs and sport associations; they are advised and supported by the German Sports Federation, especially the Federal Board of Elite Sports and on state level by the state committees for elite sports. ◆ The Federal Republic of Germany does not take over any responsibility for contents and success of acting. It supports by subsidies, i.e. it finances tasks for which the responsible units, namely the unified community of sportsmen (clubs and associations) do not have the necessary funds. Influencing control on young elite sport is practised by allocation of funds and by cooperation of free sport with schools, however mainly restricted to the lowest level of talent support. It has to be noted that support of the young on the part of the government is mainly practised by the individual states and communities which is regionally handled very differently. ◆ The following deficits can be detected in Germany ́s talent system of today: 1. Talent identification is more or less left to chance (compare CARL 1988, MARTIN et.al. 1999), respectively possible measures are not implemented systematically. One is usually working on the assumption that the club is so attractive for the population that a sufficiently large number of children will “automatically” turn to the club. 2. A further problem consists of the not adequately developed cooperation between school and club. Equivalent resources can be assumed in this field, as well (compare BRETTSCHNEIDER / KLIMEK 1998). 3. In talent selection there is a lack of orientation towards fixed test parameters. This is true because in the course of a certain prognosis reliability, it is inevitable to orientate oneself by objective criteria. 4. The inclusion of parents, respectively the support of parents as a central performance influencing factor is missing or are inadequately pronounced. 5. Academic and professional careers are poorly safeguarded. 6. However, the empirical data basis on these aspects has to be called rather weak (compare EMRICH/FESSLER/KNOLL 1999). In order to approach at least some of these problems and questions a glance at other national talent systems should be permitted. Some nations, e.g. Australia, have succeeded in implementing a system which enables an efficient, effective and hence successful talent identification, talent search and talent support. There are surely a number of good models of talent identification, search and support, however, only a few nations have been successful in implementing these in the long run. In this article the authors are mainly focussing on two questions: ◆ Which different kinds of talent systems are there and in which social systems are they implemented or have they been implemented? ◆ Which aspects were the guarantors for the success or failure of these systems and which possible conclusions have to be drawn from them for a future talent system in Germany? 2. Definition of Terms First of all the terms, as used by the authors in the following text, shall be defined (see table below, following WARR 2000).
A critical study of sports talent selection and promotion of sports participation, at young age
It has been a long drawn effort of the author to draw attention of the authorities to the importance and emphasis needed to be given to the question of most appropriate talent selection at young age for prospective excellence in sports. Unfortunately non-existence of graduation degree in sports coaching in India and wide spread unawareness, among departments and institutions of higher education in physical education and sports to the fields of physical growth, development, physique and physiological variations prevalent in India, children are left to select mostly sports unsuitable to their adult body potentials. The present study has been based on survey and critical analysis and new interpretations of existing research data on Olympic Champions (Carter 1984; Hirata 1979; Tanner 1964). In general, coaches and sports federations in India have been found to lack not only in the application of existing scientific principles but also in developing or maintaining any library or any literature on talent selection, or on measurement and evaluation even at any offices of national and state level sports associations/federations. The study has presented the scientific results on talent selection in a suitable form to make it easy to be used by the sports trainers and sports counsellors. Critical points of failure in the talent selection at young age have been dealt with scientifically along with a mapping of the long term plans and easy solutions for removing many hurdles currently in implementation of scientific preparation of Indian teams for national and international participation. Findings have also been reported to improve the number of sports participants in the country through proper talent selection at young age. The present population of sportspersons in India is extremely less, being less than 1% of the students up to middle schools and less than 10% of the students in colleges and universities. It has been proposed for better sports talent grooming that all high schools should be given sports infrastructure for training and participation in atleast one outdoor sport and one indoor sport/fitness activity. Each school must be accordingly required to participate in inter scholastic competitions in atleast these two sports or one sports and one fitness event. Prediction of adult physique at young age and scientific selection of most suitable sports has been presented in the present paper, to be presented in the Commonwealth Games 2010 Conference. It has also been explained that there is an urgent need to start an international CAKE (ie, Centre of Application of Knowledge Existing in the field of Sports research literature for preparing key guidelines for talent selection at young age). Sports participation will be increased many fold if children are guided properly to select a right sport as per their adult physiques and sports potentials.
ACADEMIC TALENT SELECTION IN GRANT REVIEW PANELS
Career grants are an important instrument for selecting and stimulating the next generation of leading researchers. Earlier research has mainly focused on the relation between past performance and success. In this study we investigate the evidence of talent and how the selection process takes place. More specifically, we investigate which quality dimensions (of the proposal, of the researcher and societal relevance) dominate, and how changes in weighing these criteria affect the talent selection. We also study which phases in the process (peer review, panel review, interview) are dominant in the evaluation process. Finally we look at the effect of the gender composition of the panel on the selection outcomes, an issue that has attracted quite some attention. Using a dataset of the scores of 897 career grant applications we found no clear ‘boundaries of excellence’, and only a few granted talents are identified as top talents based on outstanding reviews compared to the other applicants. Quite often, the scores applicants receive change after the interview, indicating the important role of that phase. The evaluation of talent can be considered to be contextual, as the rankings of applicants changed considerably during the procedure and reviewers used the evaluation scale in a relative way. Furthermore, talent was found to have different (low correlated) dimensions. Small changes of the weights of these dimensions do not influence the final outcomes much, but strong changes do. We also found that the external peer reviews hardly influence the decision-making. Finally, we found no gender bias in the decisions.
An Overview of the Important Points of Talent Selection in Sports
Talent selection is the most important phase to train elite athletes for future. In the talent selection stages, there are many important criteria’s have shown in the literature. The age is an important criterion. Besides, physical fitness, anthropometric data’s have used to the testing athletes for talent selection. On the other hand, the cognitive, perceptual and motor skills are also important factors to determine talented individuals. Researchers have conducted many tests for talent selection also include genetic testing nowadays. This review summarizes the most important criteria’s and the most commonly used tests roughly.
EXAMINING THE I. LEVEL RESULTS OF THE TALENT SELECTION IN SPORTS AND DIRECTING TO SPORTS PROJECT FOR THE OLYMPIC GAMES (BURSA SAMPLE)
The aim of this research is examining the I. level results of the talent selection in sports and directing to sports project for the olympic games in Bursa. This study which includes 8838 students between the ages 7 and 12, is important for determining the national physical fitness according to the age groups. The first level of the project includes 30 m. speed running and 8 running (slalom racing) tests. These tests were applied by the help of physical education teachers from 34 different schools and by sports experts from Province Administration of Youth and Sport. Every schools results were formed according to the age groups of girls and boys and then saved in computers by the sport experts. After these statistical evaluations were done in SPSS programme. To find the difference between two groups Independent T test, to find the difference between more than two groups One Way Anova and Bonferroni tests were applied. As a result, speed, coordination, skill and strength show differences in the childhood period between the ages of 7 and 12. This difference is well-proportional with the age and when it is compared with the gender the results were found in favour of boys. It can be seen that the findings are appropriate to the present literature.